NFT Smart Contract

In this tutorial you will learn how to create an NFT omnichain smart contract that mints NFTs on ZetaChain in response to token deposits on connected chains.

A user deposits a native gas token on one of the connected chains by sending it to the TSS address. This triggers an omnichain contract call on ZetaChain, and onCrossChainCall is called. The contract then mints an NFT with an amount property equal to the amount of tokens deposited, and a chain property equal to the chain ID of the chain that the deposit was made on. The NFT is sent to the user address on ZetaChain.

A user may then send the NFT to another address on ZetaChain (as it is a regular ERC-721) or burn it.

When an NFT is burned, the amount of tokens that it represents is withdrawn to a recipient (specified by the user when burning the NFT) on the chain from which the NFT was minted.

Clone the Hardhat contract template:

git clone

Install dependencies:

cd template

Run the following command to create a new omnichain contract called NFT.

npx hardhat omnichain NFT recipient:address
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.7;
import "@zetachain/protocol-contracts/contracts/zevm/SystemContract.sol";
import "@zetachain/protocol-contracts/contracts/zevm/interfaces/zContract.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721.sol";
import "@zetachain/toolkit/contracts/BytesHelperLib.sol";
import "@zetachain/toolkit/contracts/OnlySystem.sol";
contract NFT is zContract, ERC721, OnlySystem {
    SystemContract public systemContract;
    error CallerNotOwnerNotApproved();
    uint256 constant BITCOIN = 18332;
    mapping(uint256 => uint256) public tokenAmounts;
    mapping(uint256 => uint256) public tokenChains;
    uint256 private _nextTokenId;
    constructor(address systemContractAddress) ERC721("MyNFT", "MNFT") {
        systemContract = SystemContract(systemContractAddress);
        _nextTokenId = 0;
    function onCrossChainCall(
        zContext calldata context,
        address zrc20,
        uint256 amount,
        bytes calldata message
    ) external override onlySystem(systemContract) {
        address recipient;
        if (context.chainID == BITCOIN) {
            recipient = BytesHelperLib.bytesToAddress(message, 0);
        } else {
            recipient = abi.decode(message, (address));
        _mintNFT(recipient, context.chainID, amount);

Import OpenZeppelin's ERC-721 implementation and the Counters library. You will use the Counters library to keep track of the token IDs. You will also import the BytesHelperLib from the ZetaChain toolkit. This library will be used for decoding data sent from other chains.

The NFT contract inherits from zContract and ERC721. The zContract interface is required for omnichain contracts and the ERC721 interface is required for NFTs.

Create a new BITCOIN constant that is set to the chain ID of the Bitcoin testnet.

Create two mappings: tokenAmounts that maps token IDs to the amount of tokens that the NFT represents and tokenChains that maps token IDs to the chain ID of the chain that the NFT was minted on.

Create a systemContract variable that is set to the address of the SystemContract contract.

Modify the constructor to call the ERC721 constructor with the name and symbol of the NFT.

Let's now take a look at the onCrossChainCall function. This function is called when a user deposits tokens from a connected chain.

The only value that will be passed in the message parameter is the recipient address.

For Bitcoin this is important, because NFTs are minted on ZetaChain, which uses hex addresses, but the context.origin contains a bech32 Bitcoin address. Since we cannot derive the hex address from the bech32 address, we pass the hex address as a parameter in the message parameter.

For EVM chains, passing the recipient address in the message parameter is not strictly necessary, because the context.origin contains the hex address of the sender, but we will do it anyway for consistency. And it allows users to specify a different recipient address than the sender address.

In the onCrossChainCall function, decode the message parameter to get the recipient address. Then call the _mintNFT function to mint the NFT.

Create a new _mintNFT function that takes a recipient address, a chainId, and an amount as parameters. This function is private, because it is only called from the onCrossChainCall function.

    function _mintNFT(
        address recipient,
        uint256 chainId,
        uint256 amount
    ) private {
        uint256 tokenId = _nextTokenId;
        _safeMint(recipient, tokenId);
        tokenChains[tokenId] = chainId;
        tokenAmounts[tokenId] = amount;

The function mints a new NFT and stores the chainId and amount in the tokenChains and tokenAmounts mappings. It then increments the token ID counter.

Create a new burn function that takes a tokenId and a recipient address as parameters. This function is public, because it is called by the user when they want to burn an NFT and withdraw the tokens that it represents.

    function burnNFT(uint256 tokenId, bytes memory recipient) public {
        if (!_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId)) {
            revert CallerNotOwnerNotApproved();
        address zrc20 = systemContract.gasCoinZRC20ByChainId(
        (, uint256 gasFee) = IZRC20(zrc20).withdrawGasFee();
        IZRC20(zrc20).approve(zrc20, gasFee);
        IZRC20(zrc20).withdraw(recipient, tokenAmounts[tokenId] - gasFee);
        delete tokenAmounts[tokenId];
        delete tokenChains[tokenId];

The function first checks that the caller is the owner of the NFT. It then retrieves the gas token ZRC-20 address for the chain that the NFT was minted on. It then withdraws the tokens that the NFT represents to the recipient address. The amount of tokens that the NFT represents minus the gas fee is withdrawn.

npx hardhat compile --force
npx hardhat deploy --network zeta_testnet
🔑 Using account: 0x2cD3D070aE1BD365909dD859d29F387AA96911e1

🚀 Successfully deployed contract on ZetaChain.
📜 Contract address: 0xb9647Fbb6562A0049CE3b425228dC59218F3b93c
🌍 Explorer:

When NFTs are minted, transferred or burned on ZetaChain, the ZetaChain protocol emits events. Since the contract cannot return all NFTs that belong to a user, you need to index these events to be able to display the NFTs. Goldsky is a subgraph indexer that indexes events.

To configure Goldsky to index events for your contract, create a goldsky.json file in the root of your project:

  "version": "1",
  "name": "NFT",
  "abis": {
    "NFT": {
      "path": "artifacts/contracts/NFT.sol/NFT.json"
  "chains": ["zetachain-testnet"],
  "instances": [
      "abi": "NFT",
      "address": "0x7a984BD3ce37257e0124A3c0d25857df5E258Be2", // Your contract address
      "chain": "zetachain-testnet",
      "startBlock": 3241788 // The block number that your contract was deployed on

Install Goldsky, login and deploy the subgraph:

curl | sh

goldsky login

goldsky subgraph deploy nft/v1 --from-abi goldsky.json

Copy the URL returned by the goldsky subgraph deploy command, you will need it in the next section when building the frontend.

To learn more about setting up Goldsky, read the guide.

Use the interact command to mint an NFT. The --contract parameter is the address of the contract that you just deployed. The --amount parameter is the amount of tokens that you want to deposit. The --recipient parameter is the address that you want to receive the NFT on ZetaChain.

npx hardhat interact --contract 0xb9647Fbb6562A0049CE3b425228dC59218F3b93c --amount 0.01 --network sepolia_testnet --recipient 0x2cD3D070aE1BD365909dD859d29F387AA96911e1
🔑 Using account: 0x2cD3D070aE1BD365909dD859d29F387AA96911e1

🚀 Successfully broadcasted a token transfer transaction on sepolia_testnet network.
📝 Transaction hash: 0x8e0c9edd2a570494b8610c99d9772cefd4fb3a5ebb42bb714f83ef898ff53881

Track the transaction using the cctx command:

npx hardhat cctx 0x8e0c9edd2a570494b8610c99d9772cefd4fb3a5ebb42bb714f83ef898ff53881

✓ CCTXs on ZetaChain found.

✓ 0xcd894e7299d80b6bf04c7a0b1589f0e5e1b4bcdbd691eb780429ceb359006d59: 11155111 → 7001: OutboundMined (Remote omnichain contract call completed)
  • Even though the minting process is initiated on connected chains, NFTs will be minted on ZetaChain.
  • During minting and burning only fungible tokens are transferred between blockchains. The NFT itself is not transferred.

In the next tutorial you will learn how to build a user interface for your NFT omnichain contract that allows users to mint, burn and view NFTs.