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Cross-Chain Messaging
Cross-Chain NFT

Build a cross-chain NFT

In this tutorial you will create an NFT collection with cross-chain transfer capabilities using Zeta Connector.

Cross-chain NFT transfer

Set up your environment

git clone
cd template

Create a new contract

To create a new cross-chain messaging contract, use the messaging command:

npx hardhat messaging CrossChainWarriors token:uint256 sender:address to:address
  • token - NFT ID
  • sender: address of the sender
  • to: address of the recipient

Modify the contract to implement NFT logic:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.7;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/interfaces/IERC20.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
import "@zetachain/protocol-contracts/contracts/evm/tools/ZetaInteractor.sol";
import "@zetachain/protocol-contracts/contracts/evm/interfaces/ZetaInterfaces.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/Counters.sol";

contract CrossChainWarriors is
ERC721("CrossChainWarriors", "CCWAR")
error InvalidMessageType();

event CrossChainWarriorsEvent(uint256, address, address);
event CrossChainWarriorsRevertedEvent(uint256, address, address);

using Counters for Counters.Counter;
Counters.Counter public tokenIds;
bytes32 public constant CROSS_CHAIN_WARRIORS_MESSAGE_TYPE =
ZetaTokenConsumer private immutable _zetaConsumer;
IERC20 internal immutable _zetaToken;

address connectorAddress,
address zetaTokenAddress,
address zetaConsumerAddress,
bool useEven
) ZetaInteractor(connectorAddress) {
_zetaToken = IERC20(zetaTokenAddress);
_zetaConsumer = ZetaTokenConsumer(zetaConsumerAddress);

if (useEven) tokenIds.increment();

function mint(address to) public returns (uint256) {
uint256 newWarriorId = tokenIds.current();


_safeMint(to, newWarriorId);
return newWarriorId;

function _mintId(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal {
_safeMint(to, tokenId);

function _burnWarrior(uint256 burnedWarriorId) internal {

function sendMessage(
uint256 destinationChainId,
uint256 token,
address to
) external payable {
if (!_isValidChainId(destinationChainId))
revert InvalidDestinationChainId();

uint256 crossChainGas = 2 * (10 ** 18);
uint256 zetaValueAndGas = _zetaConsumer.getZetaFromEth{
value: msg.value
}(address(this), crossChainGas);
_zetaToken.approve(address(connector), zetaValueAndGas);


destinationChainId: destinationChainId,
destinationAddress: interactorsByChainId[destinationChainId],
destinationGasLimit: 300000,
message: abi.encode(
zetaValueAndGas: zetaValueAndGas,
zetaParams: abi.encode("")

function onZetaMessage(
ZetaInterfaces.ZetaMessage calldata zetaMessage
) external override isValidMessageCall(zetaMessage) {
(bytes32 messageType, uint256 token, address sender, address to) = abi
.decode(zetaMessage.message, (bytes32, uint256, address, address));

revert InvalidMessageType();

_mintId(to, token);

emit CrossChainWarriorsEvent(token, sender, to);

function onZetaRevert(
ZetaInterfaces.ZetaRevert calldata zetaRevert
) external override isValidRevertCall(zetaRevert) {
(bytes32 messageType, uint256 token, address sender, address to) = abi
.decode(zetaRevert.message, (bytes32, uint256, address, address));

revert InvalidMessageType();

_mintId(to, token);

emit CrossChainWarriorsRevertedEvent(token, sender, to);

Firstly, import the ERC721 contract from the OpenZeppelin library. This will enable the contract to adopt the ERC721 NFT standard. Import the Counters utility from the OpenZeppelin library. The Counters utility provides a secure mechanism to increment or decrement a counter.

Next, ensure that the contract also inherits from ERC721 and initializes it with the name "CrossChainWarriors" and the symbol "CCWAR". You can choose your own name and symbol.

Introduce a new state variable by leveraging the Counters.Counter data structure. Name this variable tokenIds. This state variable will be used to manage unique IDs for the ERC721 tokens that the contract will mint.

Modify the constructor of the contract to accept a new parameter bool useEven. This parameter will be used to determine the parity of NFT IDs on different chains: even IDs on one chain and odd IDs on another. This action guarantees unique IDs for the initial tokens.

Furthermore, incorporate a series of new functions to extend the contract's functionalities:

  • Introduce a mint(address to) function, a public-facing method that allows minting a new ERC721 token to a specified address and returns the ID of the newly minted token. Remember to increment the tokenIds counter twice within this function to ensure unique IDs.
  • Add an internal function _mintId(address to, uint256 tokenId). This function should be designed to mint a specific ERC721 token with a pre-determined ID to a specified address.
  • Introduce another internal function _burnWarrior(uint256 burnedWarriorId). This function should facilitate the burning (destruction) of a specific ERC721 token using its provided ID.

Having done that, make necessary modifications to existing functions:

  • Amend the sendMessage(...) function. As part of its operations, ensure that the function burns an ERC721 token using the _burnWarrior(token) method. This change ties the act of sending a message to burning an ERC721 token. Within the sendMessage function, you should notice that the address sender argument has been removed from the function's signature. Also, ensure that the message encoding captures msg.sender as part of its structure.
  • Update the onZetaMessage(...) function. When a Zeta message is received and validated, the contract should now mint an ERC721 token to a specified address using the _mintId(to, token) function.
  • Similarly, modify the onZetaRevert(...) function. On the reception and validation of a Zeta revert message, the contract should mint an ERC721 token to a specific address.

After thsese change the CrossChainWarriors contract is now able to mint and burn non-fungible tokens using the ERC721 standard.

Create a Mint Task

The mint task accepts a contract address as an argument, calls the mint function on it, searches the events for a "Transfer" event and prints out the token ID.

import "./tasks/mint";

Update the Interact Task

Remove the sender argument. In the contract we're using the msg.sender value, instead.

const paramSender = hre.ethers.utils.getAddress(args.sender);

const tx = await contract
.sendMessage(destination, paramToken, paramTo, { value });


task("interact", "Sends a message from one chain to another.", main)
.addFlag("json", "Output JSON")
.addParam("contract", "Contract address")
.addParam("amount", "Token amount to send")
.addParam("destination", "Destination chain")
.addParam("token", "uint256")
.addParam("sender", "address")
.addParam("to", "address");

Update the Deploy Task

Modify the deploy task by adding a new argument parity and passing it to the deployContract function. The parity argument is used to determine the parity of NFT IDs on different chains: even IDs on one chain and odd IDs on another.

const main = async (args: any, hre: HardhatRuntimeEnvironment) => {
const networks = args.networks.split(",");
const contracts: { [key: string]: string } = {};
await Promise.all( (networkName: string, i: number) => {
const parity = i % 2 == 0;
contracts[networkName] = await deployContract(

// ...

const deployContract = async (
hre: HardhatRuntimeEnvironment,
networkName: string,
parity: boolean,
json: boolean = false,
gasLimit: number
) => {
const contract = await factory.deploy(
zetaTokenConsumerUniV2 || zetaTokenConsumerUniV3,
{ gasLimit }

Deploy the Contract

Clear the cache and artifacts, then compile the contract:

npx hardhat compile --force

Run the following command to deploy the contract to two networks:

npx hardhat deploy --networks goerli_testnet,mumbai_testnet
🚀 Successfully deployed contract on mumbai_testnet.
📜 Contract address: 0xe6663Ea61512630438ADC89dB7fD9aE5Ccb28D7B

🚀 Successfully deployed contract on goerli_testnet.
📜 Contract address: 0x834313e0C221A5507C3fD62d825FD5182b94c68D

🔗 Setting interactors for a contract on mumbai_testnet
✅ Interactor address for 5 (goerli_testnet) is set to 0x834313e0c221a5507c3fd62d825fd5182b94c68d

🔗 Setting interactors for a contract on goerli_testnet
✅ Interactor address for 80001 (mumbai_testnet) is set to 0xe6663ea61512630438adc89db7fd9ae5ccb28d7b

Mint an NFT

npx hardhat mint --contract 0xe6663Ea61512630438ADC89dB7fD9aE5Ccb28D7B --network mumbai_testnet
🔑 Using account: 0x2cD3D070aE1BD365909dD859d29F387AA96911e1

✅ "mint" transaction has been broadcasted to mumbai_testnet
📝 Transaction hash: 0x9b0ed3d360aa7d42ed9e5a366caa9a71b3e85f8ed2041cb8572f6ccd60348cda
🌠 Minted NFT ID: 2

Send the NFT to the Destination Chain

npx hardhat interact --contract 0xe6663Ea61512630438ADC89dB7fD9aE5Ccb28D7B --network mumbai_testnet --destination goerli_testnet --token 2 --amount 1.5 --to 0x2cD3D070aE1BD365909dD859d29F387AA96911e1
🔑 Using account: 0x2cD3D070aE1BD365909dD859d29F387AA96911e1

✅ The transaction has been broadcasted to mumbai_testnet
📝 Transaction hash: 0x3814bf4d75009a694435f2a0512be31750491c2d3a4fdee30f695e10392b345f

After the transfer transaction is confirmed, you will be able to see the NFT on the recipient address page on the destination chain.

Source Code

You can find the source code for the example in this tutorial here: